Innovations in Toxin Management
There are several bioactive substances of bacterial origin that cause enteric diseases, triggering immune and pro-inflammatory reactions in animals. Among the major infectious agents are E. coli and Clostridium sp.
• Exotoxins are proteins actively secreted by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria during their growth.
• Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that form the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, being released during bacterial growth or cell lysis.
These are toxic metabolites produced by aerobic fungi, especially by the genus Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. These metabolites can be present in grains, byproducts and bulky conserved (hay and silage), which are fed to livestock.
Their main effects in animals are reduced consumption, performance, immunity and fertility, as well as higher incidence of reproductive disorders.
“Of the around 400 known mycotoxins the most harmful for animals and humans are: Aflatoxins, Fumonisin, Zearalenone, T2 toxin and DON. They can act individually or synergistically empowering their negative effects on the animal.”
The use of adsorbents mixed with the feed is the most used way of prevention. They chemically bind the toxins in the gastrointestinal tract and with that, decrease the bioavailability and toxicity of mycotoxins.
The choice of an ideal adsorbent must take into consideration:
• Capacity to adsorb high toxins concentrations
• Adsorbent selectivity
• Inclusion ratio
All these results must be proven by laboratory reports (IN13).